Lesson 34 : Continuous Tense

§ 已介紹過的動詞時態

曾經介紹過的動詞時態有六種:
1. Simple Present Tense 

  動詞形態:動詞的現在式
         
  例:I do the work now.
2. Simple Past Tense 

  動詞形態:動詞的過去式
         
  例:I did the work yesterday.
3. Simple Future Tense 

  動詞形態:will / shall﹝英﹞ + 動詞的現在式
         
  例:I will do the work tomorrow.
4. Present Perfect Tense 

  動詞形態:have / has + 動詞的過去分詞
         
  例:I have done the work.
5. Past Perfect Tense 

  動詞形態:had + 動詞的過去分詞
         
  例:I had done the work before you came.
6. Future Perfect Tense 

  動詞形態:will ( shall ) have + 動詞的過去分詞
         
  例:I will have done the work before you come.

§ Continuous Tense

現在介紹另一種動詞時態,就是進行時態。這種時態的形態是:
         
    BE + 動詞的現在分詞
動詞的進行時態表示:

    正在進行的動作或狀態
進行時態與先前介紹過的六種時態結合,可得出另外六種時態:
  1. Present Continuous Tense
  2. Past Continuous Tense
  3. Future Continuous Tense
  4. Present Perfect Continuous Tense
  5. Past Perfect Continuous Tense
  6. Future Perfect Continuous Tense


1. Present Continuous Tense﹝現在進行時態﹞
         
動詞的現在進行時態的形態是: 

    am / are / is + 動詞的現在分詞 
動詞的現在進行時態表示:
         
    現在正在進行的動作或狀態
例如:
         
  I am going to school.
  You are eating an apple.
  He is playing ball.
※ 有些動詞本身已經有「正在進行」的意思,所以不必用進行時態。
   包括:
(1) 表示情感的動詞 
         
例如:
錯誤
正確
I am loving you.
I love you.
She is hating him.
She hates him.
He is liking apples.
He likes apples.
They are disliking oranges.
They dislike oranges.
 (2) 表示佔有的動詞
         
例如:
錯誤
正確
He is possessing a house.
He possesses a house.
She is having two dogs.
She has two dogs.
  * He is having a bath. "is having" 不解作「佔有」,解作「行」。

  * He is having his supper. "is having" 不解作「佔有」,解作「吃」。
         
(3) 動詞的進行時態表示的動作或狀態是暫時性的和可以立刻停止
    的。如果動作或狀態是長期性的或不能立刻停止的,則不可用
    進行時態。
         
例如:
         
  I am seeing a flower.﹝錯誤﹞

  I am looking at a flower.﹝正確﹞

  * "see" 是外界的形象傳入我的眼中,使我看見;"look" 是我用心去看
    外界的形象,使我看見。"see" 不能立刻停止,"look" 可以立刻停止。
         
  * "look"是不及物動詞,要加 "at" 才及物。
  Did you see anything?
  I looked but saw nothing.
  I am hearing the radio.﹝錯誤﹞

  I am listening to the radio.﹝正確﹞

  * "hear" 是外界的聲音傳入我的耳中,使我聽到;"listen" 是我用心去聽
   外界的聲音,使我聽到。"hear" 不能立刻停止,"listen" 可以立刻停止。

  * "listen"是不及物動詞,要加 "to" 才及物。
  Did you hear any sound?
  I listened but heard nothing.
  I see everything but look at nothing.﹝視而不見﹞
         
  I hear everything but listen to nothing.﹝聽而不聞﹞
但當 "see" 及 "hear' 不解作「看」和「聽」時,可用進行時態:
         
  The policeman is seeing the matter.
  ﹝那警察正在查訪那事件。﹞
  The judge is hearing the case.
  ﹝那法官正在審查那案件。﹞
  The cow is standing on the hill.﹝正確﹞
         
  The temple is standing on the hill.﹝錯誤﹞
         
  The temple stands on the hill.﹝正確﹞
         
  The horse is lying on the road.﹝正確﹞
         
  A tree is lying on the road.﹝錯誤﹞
         
  A tree lies on the road.﹝正確﹞


2. Past Continuous Tense﹝過去進行時態﹞
         
動詞的過去進行時態的形態是: 

    was / were + 動詞的現在分詞 
動詞的過去進行時態表示:
         
    過去某一時間內正在進行的動作或狀態
         
例如:
         
  He was sleeping when I saw him yesterday.
  When he came, I was reading the magazine.
  Where were you going when I saw you yesterday?


3. Future Continuous Tense﹝將來進行時態﹞
動詞的將來進行時態的形態是: 

    will ( shall ) be + 動詞的現在分詞 
動詞的將來進行時態表示:

    將來某一時間內正在進行的動作或狀態
         
例如:
         
  We will be waiting for you at the hotel tomorrow.
  I will be playing ball with John when you come tomorrow.


4. Present Perfect Continuous Tense﹝現在完成進行時態﹞
         
動詞的現在完成進行時態的形態是: 

    have ( has ) been + 動詞的現在分詞 
動詞的現在完成進行時態表示:
         
    過去已經開始而到現在還正在進行的動作或狀態
         
例如:
         
  I have been reading this book for a week.
  I have been waiting for him since three o'clock.


5. Past Perfect Continuous Tense﹝過去完成進行時態﹞
         
動詞的過去完成進行時態的形態是: 

    had been + 動詞的現在分詞 
動詞的過去完成進行時態表示:
         
    過去某一時間以前已經開始而到那時還正在進行的動作或狀態
         
例如:
         
  They had been playing ball for an hour when you reached
  the playground.
  I had been doing my homework for three hours when he 
  visited me yesterday.


6. Future Perfect Continuous Tense﹝將來完成進行時態﹞
         
動詞的將來完成進行時態的形態是:

    will ( shall ) have been + 動詞的現在分詞 
動詞的將來完成進行時態表示:
         
    將來某一時間以前已經開始而到那時還正在進行的動作或狀態
         
例如:
         
  I will have been studying English for five years when you 
  begin.

練習

翻譯
         
1. 我正在學習英文文法。
2. 我昨天見你的父親時,他正在工作。
3. 明天這個時候我正在與他在河邊散步。
4. 你昨天在戲院時,他正在上學。
5. 日落時,他正在河邊修補魚網。
6. 犬正在門外吠,因為賊人已入屋了。
7. 如果你明天中午來探訪我,我將正在吃午餐。
8. 農人正等候雨水。
9. 明年今日我們將正在美國研究物理學。
10. 今晨你打電話給我時,我正與李小姐談話。